Perbudakan dalam Konstitusi Amerika
By the time of the Constitutional Convention in 1787, slavery in the United States was a grim reality. In the census of 1790, there were slaves counted in nearly every state, with only Massachusetts and the « districts » of Vermont and Maine, being the only exceptions. In the entire country 3.8 million people were counted, 700,000 of them, or 18 percent, were slaves. In South Carolina, 43 percent of the population was slave. In Maryland 32 percent, and in North Carolina 26 percent. Virginia, with the largest slave population of almost 300,000, had 39 percent of its population made up of slaves.
In the Articles of Confederation, the nation’s first constitution, there is not mention of slavery. The states were represented in Congress by state, with each state picking its own representatives, so population, which became critical in the future House of Representatives, was not relevant. Also, because fugitive slaves, and the abolition movement, were almost unheard of as late as the 1780s, there is no mention of this issue in the Articles. The closest thing to be found is the Fugitive Clause in Article 4, but even that is more geared toward convicts.
There was no great movement in America to abolish slavery in the 1780’s, when the Constitutional Convention met. To be sure, there were opponents of slavery, on a philosophical level, but the abolition movement did not appear until the 1830’s, when the American Anti-Slavery Society was founded with William Lloyd Garrison writing the organization’s nascent statement of principles. Prior to the Convention in 1787, many « Founding Fathers » expressed opinions that condemned slavery.
Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, which, famously, declares that « all men are created equal, » wrote, « There must doubtless be an unhappy influence on the manners of our people produced by the existence of slavery among us. The whole commerce between master and slave is a perpetual exercise of the most boisterous passions, the most unremitting despotism on the one part, and degrading submissions on the other. Our children see this, and learn to imitate it; for man is an imitative animal. This quality is the germ of all education in him. » Alas, like many Southerners, Jefferson held slaves, as many as 223 at some points in his life. His family sold his slaves after his death, in an effort to relieve the debt he left his estate in.
Article of Confederation http://www.usconstitution.net/articles.html
The Three-Fifths Compromise is found in Article 1, Section 2, Paragraph 3 of the United States Constitution:
Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.
Tail between legs, http://idioms.thefreedictionary.com/with+tail+between+legs
Pancake Make-up http://www.ehow.com/how_4450158_apply-pancake-makeup.html
undang-undang yg pembentukannya diperintahkan oleh undang-undang dasar atau oleh peraturan perundang-undangan
California Gold Rush, http://www.historichwy49.com/goldrush.html
of a profession, involving « old fashioned » walking around.
Age of Reason, http://www.allabouthistory.org/age-of-reason.htm
Ponzi scheme, http://www.sec.gov/answers/ponzi.htm
Ponzi Schemes – Frequently Asked Questions
FBI’s video on Ponzi schemes
What is a Ponzi scheme?
Why do Ponzi schemes collapse?
How did Ponzi schemes get their name?
Does the SEC investigate Ponzi schemes?
Who is Bernie Madoff?
How is the SEC responding to its Office of Inspector General’s reports on the Madoff fraud?
What are some Ponzi scheme “red flags”?
What steps can I take to avoid Ponzi schemes and other investment frauds?
What are some of the similarities and differences between Ponzi and pyramid schemes?
What is a Ponzi scheme?
A Ponzi scheme is an investment fraud that involves the payment of purported returns to existing investors from funds contributed by new investors. Ponzi scheme organizers often solicit new investors by promising to invest funds in opportunities claimed to generate high returns with little or no risk. In many Ponzi schemes, the fraudsters focus on attracting new money to make promised payments to earlier-stage investors and to use for personal expenses, instead of engaging in any legitimate investment activity.
Will Rogers www.willrogers.com
William Penn Adair « Will » Rogers was an American cowboy, vaudeville performer, humorist, social commentator and motion picture actor. He was one of the world’s best-known celebrities in the 1920s and 1930s.
Buddy Holly, http://www.buddyholly.com/
Tes Rorshach http://www.skepdic.com/inkblot.html The Rorschach inkblot test is a psychological projective test of personality in which a subject’s interpretations of ten standard abstract designs are analyzed as a measure of emotional and intellectual functioning and integration. The test is named after Hermann Rorschach (1884-1922) who developed the inkblots, although he did not use them for personality analysis.